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  • EASTERN BOSNIA - APRIL 2001: This are my grandmother’s hands. She survived two wars. 2nd World War and the Bosnian war for independence. Most of her family was exterminated in 2nd world war. Pretty much the offspring of the people that killed her family in 2nd world war committed atrocities in Bosnia in early 90’s. Eastern Bosnia is on the border with neighboring Serbia with river Drina as a natural border. Through the history Bosnia was always a border country between East and West, during the Ottoman period it was the border post towards Austrian empire, before that it was border between Eastern and Western Empire. This position made Bosnia quite a unique conglomerat of ckutures,traditions,religions. Other than that it didn't bring us too much good. When the war was over, a foreign journalist came to interview my professor of poetry, Marko Vesovic. Entering his appartment, the journalist noticed my professor's dog who was lying in a corner. 'What remarkable blue eyes he has,' the journalist said. 'Well, you see,' explained my professor, 'the dog used to eat the same food we ate during the war. Now he is blind. Dogs are ageing seven times faster than we do, so with us it is different. We still have to wait for the effects on us. I never witnessed a mortar shell exploding in front of the people in the market place or a sniper shooting someone in front of my high school. I was always a couple of seconds or minutes late, or I would pass by the market place just before the shell exploded and killed more than sixty people waiting to buy groceries, or I would be running in a dark street with broken glass falling on me. But I've seen people cleaning the streets after shelling, I've seen what was left of a young man after a thirty-kilo shell exploded near him, and I've also seen the face of woman who survived this unhurt. Lately, when I was in Jerusalem for the first time, I wanted to visit the Al-Aksa mosque. At the entrance I was stopped by an Israeli soldier, a native Russian, and an Arab guard of the mosque. 'You are not allowed to enter,' said the soldier. 'You are not Muslim.' 'But I am!' I insisted. They wouldn't believe me. In Italy, I told an acquaintance of mine that I was a Muslim. He was irritated. 'But then,' he said, 'you cannot be a European.' 'But I am!' I replied. The Turks have left us with an unsolved national question. Religion and culture have always been strongly intermingled in our country. When the Ottoman Empire conquered Bosnia in 1453, the strategy it used to establish its rule was Roman: Divide et impera. Religion was the vehicle. Favouring the Muslims helped the Turks run the country, but it divided the Bosnians. In the 19th century, during the era of Romanticism, when Central Europeans began to build up their ideas of nationhood based on concepts of cultural uniqueness, Bosnians developed their own cultural identities out of religious affiliations. But these cultural identities failed to develop into the idea of a Bosnian nation: Bosnian Catholics and Bosnian Orthodox were seduced by the ideas of a Great Serbia or a Great Croatia. Today Bosnia is a resort of moderate, autonomous European Islam. Actually most of the population are Christians: Orthodox and Catholics. The Arab countries were not too impressed by the Bosnian version of Islam and their help wasn't sufficient to help us defend ourselves against the former Yugoslav Army, one of the strongest armies in Europe. The body count in the recent war was almost all Bosnian Muslim, but for the first time in the last two hundred years we have a state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a language that is recognized….We've never been closer to a nation. I'm afraid that the fact that Bosnians are white helped us a lot. Probably that's why it took only four years for NATO to intervene in Bosnia. Before the fall of Srebrenica, the UN safe haven zone, foreign involvement was on the level of bringing humanitarian aid, mostly only where the Serbian Army allowed, and counting the shells and bombs falling on Bosnian cities. Then after the fall of Srebrenica and the massacre of Bosnian Muslims that followed it, NATO bombed the Serbian positions and brought peace. The first shelling of their positions around Sarajevo came at night. I remember our windows, covered with humanitarian nylon sheeting with UN signs instead of glass, opening because of the detonations, this time on the Serbian side. My mother cooked a pie to celebrate it. Our lives during the war were reduced to the basics. Having a bath with five-litre canisters and then using the water for the toilet. Making meat pie without meat. We became experts at peeing in the dark. The  path to happiness was very short, and the learning curve was steep. Once we all adopted these vital skills, and even got used to our little limbo and for a moment stopped talking about peace, our politicians signed the peace agreement. We have a new anthem now. We also have a new flag. It shows a dark blue ground on which is placed a golden triangle, a row of golden stars on one side. The triangle is meant to represent Bosnia and the row of stars I guess imply the European Union. Today we have to stand in a queue to get a visa for every European country. The writer Ivo Andric, one of two Bosnian Nobel Prize winners, described Bosnia in one of his novels as a 'valley of darkness'. The valley is surely dark; it is dark with Bosnian blood, it is darkened by American ignorance and European impotence, it is dark because of the clouds above. Yet it is our valley (Photo by Ziyah Gafic/Exclusive by Getty Images)

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Međunarodni dan podrške žrtvama torture obilježava se danas

TRIAL International – Ured u BiH i ove godine na Međunarodni dan podrške žrtvama torture podsjeća na odluku UN Komiteta protiv torture, koja je donesena protiv države BiH zbog neispunjavanja obaveza prema žrtvi ratnog seksualnog nasilja. Komitet je Odluku donio još u augustu 2019. godine u skladu sa članom 22. Konvencije, prema kojoj je Bosna i Hercegovina dužna isplatiti naknadu štete, osigurati odgovarajuću besplatnu medicinsku i psihološku pomoć te uspostaviti efektivni sistem reparacija na državnom nivou. Neispunjenjem obaveza prema preživjeloj „A“, BiH krši ne samo UN-ovu Konvenciju protiv torture, već i standarde ustanovljene u drugim međunarodnim dokumentima.

Glavna prepreka implementaciji Odluke jeste sporost u radi institucija i donosioca odluka i neopredijeljenost ključnih aktera za prioritetan rad ne samo na implementaciji ove Odluke već generalno na pitanjima tranzicijske pravde. Zbog toga je još važnije da stalno podsjećamo na implementaciju ove Odluke i podržimo uspostavljanje radne grupe na nivou državnih ministarstava koja će raditi na rješenjima za implementaciju preporuka.“, ističu iz TRIAL International – Ured u BiH.

Ovim povodom ambasador Velike Britanije u BiH, Nj.E. Matthew Field, istakao je da glavnu odgovornost trebaju preuzeti vlasti BiH koje moraju osigurati adekvatnu brigu za žrtve. “Ukoliko se dokaže da počinitelj nije u mogućnosti platiti odštetu koja je dosuđena žrtvi, tada bh. institucije trebaju uspostaviti efektivni sistem reparacije. Preživjele ratnog seksualnog nasilja trebaju našu podršku. Svi zajedno moramo osigurati pravdu”, naveo je ambasador Field.

„Međunarodni dan podrške žrtvama torture služi kao važan podsjetnik da se svi zajedno moramo boriti za prava preživjelih torture. Krajnje je vrijeme da se odluka UN Komiteta protiv mučenja u potpunosti provede. Nastavit ćemo pozivati i savjetovati vlasti BiH kako da ispune svoje međunarodne obaveze kao i  da zagovaramo prava žrtava torture – je ne zaslužuju ništa manje od toga.“, kazao je ambasador Johann Sattler, šef Delegacije Evropske unije i specijalni predstavnik EU u BiH.

TRIAL International – Ured u BiH je u junu 2020. godine zajedno za Ministarstvom za ljudska prava i izbjeglice BiH organizovao okrugli sto na kojem je uz prisustvo predstavnika domaćih institucija i međunarodne zajednice razgovarano o implementaciji ove odluke. Kao rezultat ovog susreta, kreirana je Informacija Bosne i Hercegovine o poduzetim aktivnostima u vezi sa ovom Odlukom, čiji zaključci su u konačnici usvojeni jednoglasno na sjednici Vijeća ministara BiH u aprilu 2021. godine. To predstavlja značajnu prekretnicu za implementaciju ove Odluke, a uskoro se očekuje i prvi sastanak radne grupe koja će raditi na kreiranju plana mjera u vezi sa provedbom Odluke.