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  • EASTERN BOSNIA - APRIL 2001: This are my grandmother’s hands. She survived two wars. 2nd World War and the Bosnian war for independence. Most of her family was exterminated in 2nd world war. Pretty much the offspring of the people that killed her family in 2nd world war committed atrocities in Bosnia in early 90’s. Eastern Bosnia is on the border with neighboring Serbia with river Drina as a natural border. Through the history Bosnia was always a border country between East and West, during the Ottoman period it was the border post towards Austrian empire, before that it was border between Eastern and Western Empire. This position made Bosnia quite a unique conglomerat of ckutures,traditions,religions. Other than that it didn't bring us too much good. When the war was over, a foreign journalist came to interview my professor of poetry, Marko Vesovic. Entering his appartment, the journalist noticed my professor's dog who was lying in a corner. 'What remarkable blue eyes he has,' the journalist said. 'Well, you see,' explained my professor, 'the dog used to eat the same food we ate during the war. Now he is blind. Dogs are ageing seven times faster than we do, so with us it is different. We still have to wait for the effects on us. I never witnessed a mortar shell exploding in front of the people in the market place or a sniper shooting someone in front of my high school. I was always a couple of seconds or minutes late, or I would pass by the market place just before the shell exploded and killed more than sixty people waiting to buy groceries, or I would be running in a dark street with broken glass falling on me. But I've seen people cleaning the streets after shelling, I've seen what was left of a young man after a thirty-kilo shell exploded near him, and I've also seen the face of woman who survived this unhurt. Lately, when I was in Jerusalem for the first time, I wanted to visit the Al-Aksa mosque. At the entrance I was stopped by an Israeli soldier, a native Russian, and an Arab guard of the mosque. 'You are not allowed to enter,' said the soldier. 'You are not Muslim.' 'But I am!' I insisted. They wouldn't believe me. In Italy, I told an acquaintance of mine that I was a Muslim. He was irritated. 'But then,' he said, 'you cannot be a European.' 'But I am!' I replied. The Turks have left us with an unsolved national question. Religion and culture have always been strongly intermingled in our country. When the Ottoman Empire conquered Bosnia in 1453, the strategy it used to establish its rule was Roman: Divide et impera. Religion was the vehicle. Favouring the Muslims helped the Turks run the country, but it divided the Bosnians. In the 19th century, during the era of Romanticism, when Central Europeans began to build up their ideas of nationhood based on concepts of cultural uniqueness, Bosnians developed their own cultural identities out of religious affiliations. But these cultural identities failed to develop into the idea of a Bosnian nation: Bosnian Catholics and Bosnian Orthodox were seduced by the ideas of a Great Serbia or a Great Croatia. Today Bosnia is a resort of moderate, autonomous European Islam. Actually most of the population are Christians: Orthodox and Catholics. The Arab countries were not too impressed by the Bosnian version of Islam and their help wasn't sufficient to help us defend ourselves against the former Yugoslav Army, one of the strongest armies in Europe. The body count in the recent war was almost all Bosnian Muslim, but for the first time in the last two hundred years we have a state of Bosnia and Herzegovina, a language that is recognized….We've never been closer to a nation. I'm afraid that the fact that Bosnians are white helped us a lot. Probably that's why it took only four years for NATO to intervene in Bosnia. Before the fall of Srebrenica, the UN safe haven zone, foreign involvement was on the level of bringing humanitarian aid, mostly only where the Serbian Army allowed, and counting the shells and bombs falling on Bosnian cities. Then after the fall of Srebrenica and the massacre of Bosnian Muslims that followed it, NATO bombed the Serbian positions and brought peace. The first shelling of their positions around Sarajevo came at night. I remember our windows, covered with humanitarian nylon sheeting with UN signs instead of glass, opening because of the detonations, this time on the Serbian side. My mother cooked a pie to celebrate it. Our lives during the war were reduced to the basics. Having a bath with five-litre canisters and then using the water for the toilet. Making meat pie without meat. We became experts at peeing in the dark. The  path to happiness was very short, and the learning curve was steep. Once we all adopted these vital skills, and even got used to our little limbo and for a moment stopped talking about peace, our politicians signed the peace agreement. We have a new anthem now. We also have a new flag. It shows a dark blue ground on which is placed a golden triangle, a row of golden stars on one side. The triangle is meant to represent Bosnia and the row of stars I guess imply the European Union. Today we have to stand in a queue to get a visa for every European country. The writer Ivo Andric, one of two Bosnian Nobel Prize winners, described Bosnia in one of his novels as a 'valley of darkness'. The valley is surely dark; it is dark with Bosnian blood, it is darkened by American ignorance and European impotence, it is dark because of the clouds above. Yet it is our valley (Photo by Ziyah Gafic/Exclusive by Getty Images)

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Održane prve edukacije za sudije i tužitelje na temu odmjeravanja kazni za ratno seksualno nasilje

Kazne koje sudovi u Bosni i Hercegovini izriču počiniteljima ratnog seksualnog nasilja su često predmet kritike javnosti. Najčešći problem koji se ističe je taj da su kazne većinom preblage i nedosljedne. Upravo ovaj problem bio je tema edukacija za sudije i tužitelje, ključne aktere kada je riječ o ovom pitanju, pod nazivom “Odmjeravanje kazni za ratno seksualno nasilje u krivičnim postupcima u BiH” koje je organizovao TRIAL International – Ured u BiH u saradnji sa Centrom za edukaciju sudija i tužilaca Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine i Centrom za edukaciju sudija i javnih tužilaca Republike Srpske. 

Žrtve ratnog seksualnog nasilja se i dalje suočavaju sa značajnim problemima u pristupu pravosudnom sistemu. Strah od sveprisutne stigme, psihološki problemi zbog nezaliječene traume, nedostatak informacija o tome kako da se kreću kroz pravni proces i nedostatak sredstava da plate pravnu pomoć samo su neki od problema koji odvraćaju preživjele od toga da prijave zločin. Međutim, čak i kada se odvaže na to da pravdu traže u sudnici, izrečene kazne često su razočaravajuće i ne odražavaju dubinu patnji koje su preživjele.

Kroz višegodišnji rad TRIAL Internationala u BiH sa preživjelima ratnog seksualnog nasilja i praćenju ovih predmeta pred sudovima u BiH, primijećeno je da su kazne koje sudovi u BiH izriču počiniteljima ovih krivičnih djela preblage, obzirom na zakonom propisani raspon, kao i da su nedosljedne u pogledu ocjene olakšavajućih i otežavajućih okolnosti”, kazala je Lamija Tiro, pravna savjetnica organizacije TRIAL International – Ureda u BiH.

Na problem niskih i nedosljednih kazni koje se izriču za ratno seksualno nasilje u Bosni i Hercegovini ukazale su i brojna tijela i organizacija, poput Komiteta protiv torture, Vijeća Evrope, Organizacije za sigurnost i saradnju u Evropi (OSCE) i Amnesty International koji su isticali prijeko potrebnu reformu u ovom smislu. 

Da bi se u konačnom došlo do pravedne i pravične kazne neophodno je cijeniti sve olakšavajuće i otežavajuće okolnosti, a takva procjena zahtijeva stručnost i znanje koje u sebi sadrži niz specifičnost što je slučaj kod ovih kaznenih djela. Ključno je da se to znanje kombinuje sa iskustvom, a ono se u značajnoj mjeri stjče i na ovakvim radionicama”, kazala je Lazarela Porić, sutkinja Kantonalnog suda u Novom Travniku i učesnica edukacije.

Nikolina Bajić, stručna saradnica Okružnog suda Banja Luka, kazala je se odmjeravanje kazne “manifestuje jednu od zadnjih karika u lancu zaštite žrtava, te ostvarenja same svrhe kažnjavanja”.

Vjerujem da je pravilno razumijevanje prava optuženih i oštećenih – kao što je pravo na obrazloženu sudsku odluku, pravo na pravično suđenje, pravo na žalbu, a što su sve prava koja su danas eksplicitno i implicitno naglašena, put ka pravilnom presuđenju”, rekla je Bajić, te je dodala “kako su edukacije poput ove značajne za senzibilizaciju svih činilaca koji djeluju u ovom polju”.

Organizacija TRIAL International je na ovaj problem prvi put ukazala publikacijom “Kažnjavanje ratnog seksualnog nasilja” i priručnikom “Odmjeravanje kazni za ratno seksualno nasilje” koji su pripremljeni na osnovu analize 92 presude donesene na državnom i entitetskim nivoima u predmetima koji su uključivali ratno seksualno nasilje u periodu od 2012. do 2017. godine. Tom prilikom ukazano je na poražavajući podatak da na entitetskom nivou, prosječno trajanje kazne za ratno seksualno nasilje iznosi samo 4,77 godina, što je ispod minimuma propisanog Krivičnim zakonom. Nakon predstavljanja publikacije i organizacije okruglog stola na ovu temu prošle godine, važna preporuka koja je nastala u diskusiji sa pravosudnim akterima bila je organizacija edukacija za tužioce i sudije. U skladu s tim, edukacije na ovu temu uvrštene su u godišnje planove edukacija centara za edukacije sudija i tužilaca u oba entiteta, čime je ova važna tema postala sastavni dio programa usavršavanja pravosudnih aktera.